Prüss-Üstün, Bos, Gore & Bartram, 2008. Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. "This document summarizes the most recent waterrelated findings on global health impacts (2); presents recent information on effective interventions (6); summarizes information from economic evaluations (7); and describes recent insights on financing (8)." World Health Organization, Geneva. 53 p. (PDF 2.7MB)

Progress on Drinking-water and Sanitation: Special Focus on Sanitation (JMP 2008)
As 2008 is the International Year of Sanitation (IYS) JMP has taken the opportunity to make sanitation a major focus in its 2008 update report, entitled "Progress on Drinking-water and Sanitation: special focus on sanitation." This report details global progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for drinking-water and sanitation, and analyses what these trends suggest for the remainder of the UN Decade "Water for Life" (2005 - 2015). It introduces a new way of assessing global, regional and country progress using the "ladder" concept for both sanitation and drinking-water." Download the report from See also for other related reports, including A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa.
Conant & Fadem, 2008. A Community Guide to Environmental Health. This report, available chapter by chapter or by complete report, covers the following topics: community mobilization; water source protection, purification and borne diseases; sanitation; mosquito-borne diseases; deforestation and reforestation; farming; pesticides and toxics; solid waste and health care waste; harm from mining and oil extraction. Includes group activities and appropriate technology instructions.” Hesperian Foundation. See Home > Publications and Resources > Downloads > A Community Guide to Environmental Health.

Borba, Smet & Sybesma , 2007. Enhancing Livelihoods Through Sanitation. The safe disposal, management and re-use of human excreta play a key role in improving people’s livelihoods. There is a virtuous circle as safe sanitation improves people’s health and the environment, and this makes it possible for people to engage in productive activities, and further increases demand for better conditions in the local environment. Effective sanitation also has a direct impact on the creation of jobs, new markets and small scale enterprises. This Thematic Overview Paper from the IRC is intended to inspire those working in water and sanitation and related sectors at policy and policy implementation levels, who are interested in the disposal, management and re-use of human excreta and in improving the well-being and environment of poor families. Read more or download  TOP19_SanLiv_07.pdf (PDF 916 KB)
Elledge, Rosensweig , Warner, Perez & Austin, 2002. Guidelines for the Assessment of National Sanitation Policies. Environmental Health Project, Strategic Report 2. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide a practical tool to assess the effectiveness of sanitation policies to improve and expand sanitation services for the underserved. The assessment looks at the adequacy of national sanitation policies and is focused around four core questions: What are the national sanitation policies? How adequate are these policies? How are these policies translated into programs? How effective are these programs in improving services? (PDF 328KB)
Feachem, Bradley, Garelick & Mara, 1983. Sanitation and disease: health aspects of excreta and wastewater management, Volume 1. World Bank studies in water supply and sanitation; no. 3.The book has two parts. Part one, entitled "The Health Hazards of Excreta: Theory and Control," presents a distillation of available knowledge about excreta, night soil, and sewage and their effects on health. Part two, entitled "Environmental Biology and Epidemiology of Specific Excreted Pathogens," contains twenty eight chapters, each describing the environmental properties of a specific excreted pathogen or group of excreted pathogens and the epidemiology and control of the infections these pathogens cause. (PDF 41MB) Home > Publications > Documents & Reports > All Documents
GHK, 2002. Effective Strategic Planning for Urban Sanitation Services: Fundamentals of Good Practice. GHK Research & Training Ltd. The purpose of the research is to explore options for institutionalizing strategic approaches to sanitation provision in urban areas, building upon previous research into the practical development of strategic sanitation concepts. (PDF 1MB) Home > Products > Publications.
Helmer & Hespanhol eds, 1997. Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. WHO/UNEP & WSSCC. This comprehensive guidebook is aimed at policy makers and environmental managers in developing and newly industrialised countries covers a range of wastewater and pollution control related topics including policy, water quality, technology, legal, economic and institutional issues. It also has 13 case studies. See Chapter 3 for Technology Selection (PDF 343KB)  Chapter 7. for Financing Wastewater Management (PDF 146KB) and Chapter 8. Institutional Arrangements. (PDF 87KB)
Hutton & Haller, 2004. Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits of Water and Sanitation Improvements at the Global Level. Water, Sanitation and Health Protection of the Human Environment, World Health Organization, Geneva. “This study aimed to estimate the economic costs and benefits of a range of selected interventions to improve water and sanitation services, with results presented for 17 WHO sub-regions and at the global level. The costs of the interventions included the full investment and annual running costs. The benefits of the interventions included time savings associated with better access to water and sanitation facilities, the gain in productive time due to less time spent ill, health sector and patients costs saved due to less treatment of diarrheal diseases, and the value of prevented deaths. The results show that all water and sanitation improvements were found to be cost-beneficial, and this applied to all world regions. (…) When different cost and benefit assumptions were used, the cost-benefit ratios changed considerably, but even under pessimistic scenarios the potential economic benefits generally outweighed the costs.” (PDF 716 KB) Other WHO publications from
Hogrewe, Joyce & Perez, 1993. The Unique Challenges of Improving Peri-Urban Sanitation. Water and Sanitation for Health Project, WASH Technical Report No.86. This document is an informational tool that helps project designers better understand and confront the problems in improving sanitation in peri-urban areas. The ultimate goals of the report are to provide the reader with some key questions to ask, with information to gather as part of the planning and design process, and with suggestions about what basic approach to follow in setting up peri-urban sanitation projects. (PDF 403KB)
International Decade for Action: Water for Life, 2005-2015. Fact sheet on Water and Sanitation.(Website)
Kolsky , Perez, Vandersypen & Jensen, 2005. Sanitation and Hygiene at the World Bank: An Analysis of Current Activities Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board Working Note No. 6, November 2005. This report reviews the current World Bank portfolio in sanitation and hygiene. It looks particularly closely at the degree to which the World Bank’s activities support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal target of halving the fraction of the world’s population without access to basic sanitation by 2015, and the constraints to increasing support to that aim. (PDF 362KB) Home> Publications > Documents & Reports > All Documents
LSHTM/WEDC, 1998.DFID Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes.This guidance manual comprises three chapters and appendices. Of particular interest is the Chapter 2 Principles and practices which starts with an inter-disciplinary analysis of key issues and then sets out recommended approaches under seven perspectives: 2.2 social development; 2.3 health; 2.4 environmental sustainability; 2.5 economic and financial perspectives; 2.6 institutional perspectives; 2.7 technical aspects; and 2.8 hygiene promotion and sanitation promotion, including social marketing aspect. (PDF, available chapter by chapter)
Sanlexicon is a Wiki providing definitions of technical terms related to all aspects of sanitation and excreta management (technical, financial, institutional, social). It is an open source web platform designed to promote a common understanding of technical terms related to all aspects of sanitation and excreta. Sanlexicon is a joint initiative between the International Water Association and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Web site:
SIWI, 2005. Securing Sanitation: The Compelling Case to Address the Crisis This publication reviews the global evidence of costs and benefits of investments in sanitation and lays out an economic case for prioritizing investments, particularly in Africa. It reviews the historical institutional perspective to identify why many current approaches to sanitation pay insufficient attention to promotion and marketing and to the use of incremental approaches to changing hygiene and sanitation practices. Prepared by the Swedish International Water Institute (SIWI), with inputs from the WHO and Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. (PDF 2,7MB) Also available chapter by chapter:
UNICEF, 2000. Sanitation for All: Promoting Dignity and Human Rights Goals 2000. This brochure offers an emotional appeal to increase sanitation and hygiene investments. In addition to illustrating the magnitude of the problem, it prescribes concrete policy choices. (PDF 650KB)
WASTE, 2005. At the End of the Pipe? Insights, visions and ideas on a shift in the sanitation paradigm. Summary from expert meetings 2005, Gouda, The Netherlands.  The proceedings reflect the contents of the informal discussion meetings, as well as the public debate and provide reference material on the progress towards sustainable sanitation approaches within the context of integrated urban planning. (Website , Proceedings available as PDF 6.2MB)
Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council and World Health Organization, 2005. Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion: Programming Guidance. A joint publication with LSHTM, PAHO, UNICEF, USAID, WEDC and WSP. This document is about a process whereby people effect and sustain a hygienic and healthy environment for themselves. It calls for developing a program for more effective investment in sanitation and hygiene promotion, and lays out a process for long-term change which may encompass institutional transformation of the policy and organizational arrangements for provision of goods and services. (PDF 797KB)
WHO, 2004. The sanitation challenge: turning commitment into reality  This document describes the following key areas where action can be taken today to translate global commitments on sanitation and hygiene into reality: making political commitments; legislation and regulations; building capacity to make a difference; getting sanitation and hygiene right; mobilising financial resources; paying attention to gender and equity; supporting small-scale entrepreneurs; focusing on youth and using education; taking responsibility for the environment; monitoring progress; and making information flow and strengthening partnerships. (PDF 562KB)
WHO & UNICEF, 2000. Global water supply and sanitation assessment 2000 report.
Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). This report constitutes a source of information for water and sanitation coverage estimates, and for supporting decisions relating to investment, planning, management and quality of service in the sector. It aims to inform those within and beyond the water supply and sanitation sector of the current status of water supply and sanitation, and to highlight the huge challenges faced in meeting the need for safe water supply and adequate sanitation world wide. (PDF 3,9MB)
The views and opinions expressed in the publications and links are those of the author(s) and web-site owners, and do not necessarily reflect those of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Any references provided in these pages to a specific product, process, or service is not intended as, and does not constitute or imply an endorsement by the World Bank of that product, process, service, or its producer or provider.
World Bank does not endorse external web-sites